Theories of the Origin of Family
Family is a social institution which is known form very beginning of the primitive societies. If means that the origin of family is perpetual. According to MacIver, in history there was no such stage in which family was absent or such stage is which is emerged.”
There is controversy about the origin of the family but following are some of the important theories of evolution about the origin of the family.
- Theory of Sex Communism
- Patriarchal Theory
- Matriarchal Theory
- Theory of Monogamy
- Evolutionary Theory
- Multi Factor Theory
Theory of Sex Communism
According to this theory, “In ancient societies there was no control on the permanent sex regulation. Any man or woman could establish sex relations with other man or woman and was no restriction on sex relationship. A woman was presented to the guests as a sign of hospitality. Such a stage of free sex b/w man and woman is called sex communism. Thus the family was the product of man’s feeling or his jealousy. The need was felt to have their own wives and the family life started from that place.
Patriarchal Family Theory
This theory was supported by Plato and Aristotle and was elaborated by sir. Henry Maine. According to this theory man was considered as the dominant authority over children and wife. In Rome man was empowered kill his wife and sons. So, the man was called the patriarch. So, according to this theory the first family which originated was patriarchal is nature. This theory is defective because in most of other ancient societies mother was also the authority and had the power of control.
Matriarchal Family Theory
Some people represented the matriarchal theory of the origin of family Briffautis his book “The mother’s writes that in ancient societies people were not aware about the relation of off springs with paternity. The people in ancient societies practices the free is intercourse with one another is which there was no knowledge that who the father is. Definitely the mother was known to give birth the child and rear his. It seems from the theory that the origin of the family was matriarchal later on the importance of the father was increased with the progress of civilization and development of agriculture.
The American sociologist Morgan has put forward the evolutionary theory of family origin. According to him this theory of evolution has passed from the following stages.
- Consanguine Family: In this type of family, marriage between blood relatives was not forbidden.
- Punaluant Family: In this type of family, brothers of one family can marry with the sisters of other family but among there no such restriction of sex. The rules of sex relations was not determined.
- Syndasmain Family: In this stage one man can marry with one woman at a time but the sex relationships of the married woman in the family was not defined.
- Patriarchal Family: In this type man is a family and had sex with many woman at a time. The power of man was at full swing.
- Monogamous Family: This is the present stage of the family system. In this type one man can marry with one woman and one woman with one or simple man at a time.
Theory of Monogamy
This theory was presented by Westermarck is his book “the history of human marriage”. This was supported by Darwin, Zuckerman and Malinowsky. According to Darwin the family originated with the need and desire of a man to be the owner of a single woman. This theory is based on the man’s feeling of ownership and jealousy. Due to man power and authority, he wanted to possess a woman and has sexual relationships with her. Later on this practice was normally accepted by the society. So, this theory is called theory of monogamy?
Multi Factor Theory
Many sociologists believe that there are many factors responsible for the evolution of the family according to ralph Linton, “Societies have not followed a single live of its evolution but many lives which diverge its evolution. “In this way this theory is acceptable to the modern sociologists. According to MacIver, Factors in the origin of family are as under.
- Sex: This is the basic factor in the family origination. Sex is necessary for the satisfaction and gratification of the family members. It is the initiate tendency of the family for production of off springs.
- Reproduction: The strong desire of the family originated is that of the reproduction of children and their rearing. This is the desire between man and woman to have children.
- Economic Organization: Family play are important role in the fulfillment of basic needs. The male was the source of economy for the wife and requirements of the members of the family.
From the discussion we can conclude that, there is no specific theory of evolution and origin of family but many people has presented their own point of views about the origin. Now a days if we see, the multi-factor theory is practice by everyone and is accepted by many sociologists.