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**Measures of Urbanization**

Following are the most important measures of urbanization

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**Tempo of Urbanization**

Tempo of urbanization is the speed of urbanization which shows the rate of change brought about by urbanization. It is calculated on the basis of annual population growth rates. The demographers tried out to find how the urban change had occurred and whether it was linear, geometric or hyperbolic (curve).

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**Percentage of Population in Urban Areas**

This is the simplest and more common measures shown mathematically as

PU = ^{U}/_{P} X 100

**Where**

PU = percentage of urban population.

U = urban population.

P = Total population.

**Example**

The percentage of urban population in Pakistan, according to 1998 census as calculated as under.

- Total urban population = 42459000.
- Total Population = 130580000

Therefore, the percentage of urban population in Pakistan will be;

Pu = ^{U}/_{P} X 100

Pu =

Pu = 32.5%

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**Ratio of urban Rural Population**

Ratio of urban rural population adopted in India. It is calculated as under.

UR = U/R

**Where**

UR = urban rural ratio.

U = urban population.

R = the rural population.

It indicates the tempo (speed) of urbanization. So, it is useful for historical comparisons.

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**Size of Locality OR Residence of the Median Inhabitant**

This measure follows the principles of median age. It is calculated by the following formula.

M1 = Q1 + (Q1 +1 – Q) 50-PP1 PP 1 + 1 – PP1

**Where**

M1 = Median inhabitant

PP1 = Cumulative percent of the population for the locality size just 1, under 50 cent.

PP1 + 1 = Cumulative percent of the next locality size.

Q1 = Upper limit of the locality size i.

Q1+1 = upper limit of the next locality size, i+1.