Many scholars believe that there are many forms of nationalism. Nationalism may manifest itself as an integral part of state ideology and expressed same as civic, religious, ethnic and cultural lines.
Follwing are the diferent types of nationalism in international relations.
- Liberal nationalism
- Aggressive nationalism
- Totalitarian nationalism
- Integral nationalism
The 19th century was the great age of nationalism both in theory and practice. The predominant type of nationalism from 1815-1870 that were of liberal nationalism. It was a galvanized force in the unification of several countries. During this period Germany, and Italy were integrated and unified. Greece and Belgium was nationhood and agitation for nationhood took place in Poland, Ireland and Austro-Hungarian Empire. In the new world, the colonies under Spain and Portugal revolted. Regarding the nature of Liberal nationalism, it can be observed that it was Pacific. It was neither exclusive nor aggressive. It was based solidly on the support of the middle class growing under individualism. But when liberal nationalism failed to unity. due to its pacifism, was become the practical means of transforming cultural nationalism into political nationalism.
The late 19th century and early 20th century brought. growing, rivalries for trade, industrial, military and naval supremacy for Allies and for colonies in the great imperialistic scramble, it made nationalism aggressive and militant and thus became one of the cause of the First World War that three empires disintegrated. Austro-Hungarian Empire, Czarist Empire and Ottoman Empire.
The First World War followed by the rise of Fascism in Italy, Germany, Japan and Spain. Fascism being totalitarian turned nationalism also into totalitarian more powerful and encompassing. brutal though in theory and international and anti-colonial gospel has also acquired in practice in nationalistic character. It can therefore be spoken of another form of totalitarian nationalism. Nationalism in USSR and the people’s Republic of China has become more restless and aggressive. Totalitarian nationalism regards the state or nation as the supreme instrument of powers to that the rights of the individuals are subordinated.
It is the characteristic form of the 20th century nationalism. It is however different from the 19th century nationalism. In order to suppress violence and killing of humanity though nation is still an ultimate point of reference for political loyalties and actions. The idea behind this nationalism is “What is good on my nation is good for the world.” Under its impacts a nation aspires to turn the whole world into the image of a single country.
H.T Morgentha terms this phenomenon as, “Nationalistic Universalism” that claim for one nation and ‘one state, the right to impose its own valuations and standards of action upon the other nations