Advantages and Merits of Nationalism
Follwoing are the the positive aspects of Nationalism
Inspiration of Patriotism
Nationalism is the state of mind that merges the self of individual in the self or nation. It installs the spirit of sacrifice for the cause of nation and that is why modern state creates national army and not mercenary forces. These nationalistic feelings create a vigor in unarmed people that makes them stand against the most powerful armies of world e.g. Vietnam and Afghanistan. It is the increasing strength of nationalism that enables nations to dominate and even to rule others.
A Unifying Factor
Nationalism is the powerful feeling. The people forget their religious, linguistic and racial differences at the call of nationalism e.g. in Afghanistan there were several differences but when USSR invaded her. the people of Afghanistan answered with combined and united force regardless of their secondary feelings, so we can say that nationalism plays very important role in this connection.
Promote Culture and Literature
Nationalism has also gives great stimulus to art and literature, as it helped to develop group languages, traditions, history and culture etc. A culture is the history of the development of Nationalism and literature is its only image. It teaches the people to love their feelings and the gains and sufferings of their heroes and heroines.
Preservation of Self-determination: Due to the down of nationalism on global scene, various nations and states and their people containing common sentiments, common objectives of life and common culture and civilization, became impelled and instigated to preserve their right of self-determination without the encroachment of foreign domination. If it were not so, then the world society might not have presented a variety of societies. their custom’. tradition. way and standard of life.
Leads to Liberalism
The idea of national self-determination developed out of the liberal nationalism. Installs in man a tolerance of other ideas and a feeling of compromise for common ends. Since it is associated with democracy and never aims at imperialism or colonialism.
A Source of Honour
Nationalism is the source of honor dignity and aggrandizement. Nationalism plays very important role at state level. When two nations anemically face each other for achieving dominance. In fact, it is nationalism of both the nations that encounter each other anemically. Success in this confrontation depends upon the strength of nationalism.
Assimilation between minorities and majorities and Emancipation
The minority emancipated themselves from the subjection of the majorities on the basis of autonomy of distinct group. The majorities use nationalism to assimilate minorities in their claim to achieve national unity.
Saving the world from monotony of the universal Empire and political and individual progress
Due to nationalism world rescues from the monotony of the universal Empire. In this system every nation advances particularly politically. When a group of people develops its own laws and institutions at its own disposal in the variety of political systems and then other nations try to follow the best. comprehensive and strong system if possible.
Supporting the ideas of democracy
Today is the age of democracy in that sovereignty, liberty, self-government. equality, justice and peace are the main symbols of democracy. One nation having common interest and common aim try to develop these ideas of’ democracy among its people through its political institutions, powers and functions of governmental organs. basic rights of the people and their duties in various fields as being mentioned in the constitution that is a sacred document. Opinion and well of the people in both the economical and political field is also superseded due to national sense of deliberation. In this regard we have the example of USA. 1 Germany, India and Pakistan that have respective nature of ideals of democracy owing national interest and national feelings
A Source of Dynamism
Nationalism produces motion and competition. Every nation tries to dominate other through positive competition. The charm and brightness of life is due to nationalism otherwise life is the valley of death. It is natural that all sorts of constructions and creativity depend upon the positive competition and competition is possible only when there is nationalism.
To conclude nationalism, we may say that it is neither good nor bad. It is all our thoughts to recommend it or condemns it. It can be used in a good way and in a bad way also.
Demerits or Disadvantages of Nationalism
Although nationalism has certain merits and considered as blessing, yet it has certain demerits that make it as curse. These are as follows:
Endangers World Peace
Nationalism is a danger to world peace and civilization. The small national sovereign states are a source of rivalry and war between strong and powerful nations. In this context we have the examples of Kashmir, Bosnia etc that stop the way of peaceful process in the world.
It breeds contempt’s and hostility among sovereign units
Nationalism breed’s contempt’s, war and hostility. It is a kind of modern fanaticism and breeds jealously, hatred and suspicion among nations. The Germany sings the song of Germany over all nations.” The English assert, “Britain shall rule the world.” The French believe that their “Culture” must dominate all others. While the Japanese too dream of the world domination through their tremendous industrial advancement.
It in its extreme associates itself with the racial superiority. The people of one nation regard other as inferior to themselves. For example, Hitler and William II nourished German militant nationalist by the theory of superiority of Nordic.
To conquer and subjugate other nationalities to satisfy the ego of one nationality and to show that the culture, literature and institution of one nation are superior. Nationalism naturally resorts to imperialism through expansionism. That is associated. with Japanese nationalism adopted a policy of expansionism to prove that it was for superior to others.
Leads to Exploitation
In order to exert greater influence in the field of “IR” nations greatly indulges in a serious competition of amazing military power that puts an end to cooperation in international relations. So we can say that nationalism leads to exploitation to a great extant.
Nationalism is dependent upon emotions like most of other ideologies and so it lead to irrational demands and therefore it is said that nationalism is rooted in irrationalism.
Nationalism is the ideology that teaches to be selfish. Machiavelli in his -Prince- says, “Whenever there is a matter of state or nations no concept of good or bad, fair or foul, justice or injustice morals or immoral should be considered.” All other consideration is secondary when there is national interest.
Leads to Racism
According to Prof. Morgenthau, nationalism leads to racism, as he says, “After integration of several states minorities are absorbed and the majority rule over other nationalities and so afterwards the unit disintegrated just of racial conflicts as Russia was dominant of all the 15 states of the former USSR, whereas after fall different states one by one declared independence just because they wanted their identification.
Negligence of Human Rights
Human rights are ignored all over the world, where in Israel on the name of nationalism thousands of people were killed. Similarly, in the former South Africa before Nelson Mandela came to power a lot of people sacrificed their lives against the racial nationalism.
Exercise of Supreme Power
In the beginning of the 20th century, Hitler of Germany, Benito Mussolini of Italy and Emperors of Japan greatly used the supreme powers against whole of the world just to satisfy the nationalistic feelings.