Meaning of Journalism
Journalism means writing for newspapers or magazines. It is the communication of information through writing in periodicals and newspapers. The people have an inborn desire to know what’s novel or new. This curiosity is satisfied by the journalists through their writing in the newspapers and journals on current affairs and news.
Journalism is the occupation of reporting, writing, editing, photographing or broadcasting news or of conducting any news organization as a business. The word “Journalism” is derived from the word “Journal” which means a daily register or a diary – a book containing each day’s business or transactions. This includes newspapers no matter whether they are published daily or weekly. It also means a magazine to whatever section of the audience it caters to.
When a person writes for a newspaper, magazine or a journal (journalist), such writing is called journalism which means communication of information about daily events condensed into a few words, sounds or pictures. We know that man by his nature is curious to know what is going on in the world around him. Journalism satisfies this vital human need by providing him and other members of the public with the relevant and requisite information. While a historian records what happened in the past, a journalist reports on current events and the latest news.
Journalism draws its inspiration from the present. It depicts the situation as it develops. It is the day to day operation of gathering and transmitting news. It affects everyone. It concerns you; me and the society at large. If a journalist delays reporting of news even by a day, nay, even by a few hours it becomes state. It is not like writing a book at your leisure. Journalism, to be effective, has got to be always kept on the move.
The role of a journalist is not confined to merely reporting the news and events. He is also responsible for interpreting and commenting on the news and events. Thus a journalist’s main function is to give out “News and Views”. The views to be expressed need not be those of his own. He can elicit and report the views of the knowledgeable cross-sections of people.
The Chambers 20th Century dictionary defines journalism as “the profession of conducting or write for public journals”. According to the majority of researchers, journalism means “the collection and editing of material of current interest for presentation, publication or broadcast”. In other words, journalism means communication of information to the public by any media, be it a newspaper, radio, or T.V. A person engaged in journalism is called a journalist.
Definitions of Journalism
Bond F. Fraser: According to him “The term journalism embraces all the forms in which and through which the news and the comments on the news reach the public. All that happens in the world, if such happenings hold interest for the public and all the thought, action and ideas which these happenings stimulate become the basic material for the journalist.”
According to Leslie Stephens, “Journalism consists of writing for pay on matters of which you are ignorant.”
Eric Hodgins of Time Magazine defines it as, “Journalism is the conveying of information from here to there with accuracy, insight and dispatch and in such a manner that the truth is served and the rightness of things is made slowly, even if not immediately, more evident”.
According to Websters third International Dictionary Journalism define as “The collection and editing of material of current interest for presentation, publication or broadcast”.
The word journalism is derived from Journal which means a daily register or a diary. Today the word journal also connotes a newspaper, published every day or even less often or a magazine. Thus Journalism means .the communication of information regarding the events of a day through written words, sounds or pictures. And a journalist is a person who writes for or conducts a newspaper or a magazine. He is also called a press man.
The oldest journalism is connected with periodical journalism. A periodical, is printed at a regular and fixed interval. A periodical can be called a newspaper if it appears at least weekly in recognized newspaper format and has general public interest.
In the modern age, the press is called the “Fourth Estate”. It enjoys a very important place in society and plays a very vital role in a democracy.
Scope of Journalism
Journalism, in its wider sense, includes reporting and commentaries delivered on television and radio. Even news events and film documentaries come within the scope of journalism. The editors, and the reporters working for television, radio or film industry claim that when they deal with news and views, they too are as much covered by the term “the Press” as people belonging to the print media. What qualifies a person to be called a journalist is the nature of the function performed by him and not the media for which he is working.