Pre Scientific Management Era up to 1880
The art of management has accident routs. The moment people began live and work together, organization and management came into existence. Modern management thought has developed through following several stags:
Classic Approach (1830 – 1930)
This approach was evolved in the early part of the 20th century. To some extent it is accepted and practiced by many managers even today. The main points of this approach are:
- Principles of management can be developed and implemented to make organization effective.
- Management principles have universal application with slight modification to suit various situations.
Scientific Management Approach (1939 – 1950)
Fredrick Taylor is the pioneer of scientific management approach. His principles of scientific management are:
- Developed a true science for each element of a worker’s job to replace the old rule of thumb method.
- Division of labour should be a part of each job
- Scientific selection, training and development of workers should be done to improve the efficiency
- There should be closed cooperation between management and workers
- Workers should work for maximum output in place of restricted output
Human Relation Approach
Classical approach and scientific approach failed to recognize the importance of human element in management. People were treated in purely rational and mechanistic terms ignoring their social and psychological needs. Human resource approach emphasize that a worker is not purely rational economic being. He has emotions and feelings. It is the responsibility of management to recognize and satisfy the social and psychological needs of workers in order to win their willing cooperation. When the workers are satisfied and motivated productivity and efficiency would increase.
Behavioral Science Approach
This is an extension of human relation approach. If focuses on the study of attitudes, behavior and performance of individual and groups in organization. It is based on the belief that work is the primary source of satisfaction and motivation. It is the responsibility of management to use the potentials of people by creating a healthy work environment, physical, social and psychological.