In the modern times, no state can survive in isolation and no state can ignore the involvement in international sphere. This involvement must be systematic and based on some well-defined principles. So, such kind of principles in the light of that such involvements are made is called Foreign Policy.
Foreign Policy is such wheel around that the huge machinery of international politics revolves and operates. It is a sovereign relation between/among sovereign states of the world, to protect their own interest as well as of other states. It is foreign policy through that a state can achieve their respective goals and objectives. Without foreign policy, a country is like a ship having no direction. Foreign policy is a strategy, planning or decision for specific goals. Every state wants to achieve certain specific goal and on the basis of these objectives foreign policy is formed.
Foreign Policy is defined variously by different thinkers and politicians. Some of the important definitions of foreign policy are as under.
According to Professor Gibson: “Foreign policy is well defined comprehensive plan based on knowledge and experience for conducting the business of the government with the rest of the world”.
According to Professor Joseph Frank: “Foreign policy consists of decisions and actions that involve to some appreciable extant. relations between one state and other”
According to George Modelski “The system activities evolved by communities by changing the behavior of other states and for adjusting their own activities to international environment.
According to C.C Rode: “A group of principles that is adopted by the states to protect the national interest and to change the behaviour of others.”
Foreign May be defined as: “Foreign policy gives you confidence on the basis of that you try to interact with other states”.
“Foreign policy is concerned with the process of making decision for the achievement of subjective and interests and to follow specific course of action”.
Nature of Foreign Policy
For Foreign Policy, there is no single principle that keep it static, but it may change with the passage of time and according to the interests of the state, i.e. sometime states formulate offensive foreign policy and sometime defensive. So, it shows that it changes according to changing conditions.
Stages in Foreign Policy Decision Making
The making of foreign policy involves a number of stages:
Assessment of the international and domestic political environment – Foreign policy is made and implemented within an international and domestic political context, which must be understood by a state in order to determine the best foreign policy option. For example, a state may need to respond to an international crisis.
Goal setting – A state has multiple foreign policy goals. A state must determine which goal is affected by the international and domestic political environment at any given time. In addition, foreign policy goals may conflict, which will require the state to priorities.
Determination of policy options – A state must then determine what policy options are available to meet the goal or goals set in light of the political environment. This will involve an assessment of the state’s capacity to implement policy options and an assessment of the consequences of each policy option.
Formal decision making action – A formal foreign policy decision will be taken at some level within a government. Foreign policy decisions are usually made by the executive branch of government. Common governmental actors or institutions which make foreign policy decisions include: the head of state (such as a president) or head of government (such as a prime minister), cabinet, or minister.
Implementation of chosen policy option – Once a foreign policy option has been chosen, and a formal decision has been made, then the policy must be implemented. Foreign policy is most commonly implemented by specialist foreign policy arms of the state bureaucracy, such as a Ministry of Foreign Affairs or State Department. Other departments may also have a role in implementing foreign policy, such as departments for trade, defense and aid.