Factors of Socio-Cultural Changes
The following are the factors of socio-cultural change
- Cultural Goals
- Availability of Natural Resources
- Attitude Toward Change
- Cultural Accident
The cultural goals have cultural values therein. These cultural values carve cultural goals for the people to strive and achieve. These goals cherish interest and attitude of the people toward attainment. To attain these goals, individual and collective efforts of the people are directed toward achievement. Their activities lead them toward acceptance of various changes in life. Everyone in the society involved in the efforts of achievement for the satisfaction of his desired goals is ‘progress’ and the changes forward, backward, up or down, with no specific direction is ‘evolution’ of the culture.
Availability of Natural Resources
The natural resources of man and material with type and magnitude are the essentials for any social activity. The physical, biological and social conditions of a culture should be so efficient and sufficient to encourage the development of social change. Tile conditions of social change require existence of natural resources. The nature of these two factors–natural environment and manpower in a society will produce social changes of the similar nature. Moreover, the material resources of wealth are important in adopting the new practices and objects. As one wants to have car but cannot afford due to shortage of economic resources. Hence the material resources are very important in bringing about .a change in. society.
Attitude toward Change
Social change depends upon the nature of the cultural values which control human behavior. Some cultures adopt changes readily and some show reluctance. The technologically advanced societies of the world show a rapid change in their attitude toward adoption of a certain idea or object. The primitive ones comparatively show resistance toward adoption of discoveries and inventions in the material and non-material world. The attitude of people in the field of material world changes rapidly than in the field of non-material. The material objects are comparatively discovered earlier and readily adopted by the people because they are more directly related with basic needs of human life.
Goldenweiser says, “Man was more rational toward his tools than towards his institutions. He was much more willing to make changes and improvements in his implements and weapons than in his customs and ideas.” Social invention ‘is still only a challenging, phrase and a noble dream.” Basic Democracy (1959) was a social invention in.Palistan made by Field Marshal Muhammad Ayub Khan, the President of Pakistan ‘Guided Democracy was a social invention made by President Sockarno of Indonesia and ‘Islamic Socialism’ by President Nasser of Egypt. ‘Evolution of Species’ by Darwin and so many by other persons.
By accident means the discoveries and inventions made by chance and which make a functioning addition into the working system of the culture. Columbus discovered America in the West by accident while he wanted to reach India in the East. All gases, metals and other elements are discoveries of science.
Without invention there would be no diffusion and without diffusion there would be little change.