Erickson Theory of Child Development
Erickson was influenced by Freud’s work and accepted the work done by Freud. The same is the case with his Erikson theory of personality, which is known as Erikson theory of child development. According to this theory of personality the human development is discontinuous proceeding through series of stages.
Erickson specified the personal and social tasks that a person must accomplish as well as the risks that a person confronts, if a person fails at the task of that particular stage.
8 Stages of Erickson Theory of Personality
According to Erikson theory of child development, every man in the society will go through the following 8 stages.
- Infancy: From Birth to 18 Months
- Early Childhood: From 18 Months to 3 Years
- Play Age or Preschooler: From 3 to 5 Years
- School Age: From 7 to 12 Years
- Adolescent: From 12 to 18 Years
- Young adulthood: From 18 to 20 Years
- Adulthood: From 20 to 35 Years
- Mature Age: From 60 Years and Above
Infancy: From Birth to 18 Months
Here a child’s basic challenge is to get a sense of trust is the main task. When a child learns trust on his or her parents, caregivers, or environment. Child also trusts himself or herself, too. If a child does not develop trust then he or she does not trust environment and even himself or herself.
Early Childhood: From 18 Months to 3 Years
At this stage children develop self-control and autonomy, but may develop shame and self-doubt. If they remain worried and concerned about their dependency and their inability to live up to adult expectations.
Play Age or Preschooler: From 3 to 5 Years
Here children struggle to develop initiative and to master their environment at the same time. Often feel guilty if they are too aggressive or too daring.
School Age: From 7 to 12 Years
Children try to develop industry and work of success. They make social compromises to evaluate their skill in relation to their peers’ failure in academic and social task may learn inferiority complex.
Adolescent: From 12 to 18 Years
The main task at this stage is to search for a stable definition of self. That is self identity. The danger is role confusion where the individual can not get a grip on who or what he or she wants to be.
Young Adulthood: From 18 to 20 Years
The main task at this stage is to develop intimacy with other especially stable relationship with spouse. If that task is not achieved it may lead to avoidance of relationship with other and thus to isolation.
Adulthood: From 20 to 35 Years
The task at this stage is to create something –children ideas, or products. If not given expression this quality of generativity can detoriate into stagnation.
Mature Age: From 60 Years and Above
The last stage of Erikson theory of child development here ego and integrity is the main task. When reflections of any person past success and failure lead to doubt and regret, despair may be the result.