What is Training
Training consists of planned programs designed to improve performance at the individual, group, and or organizational level. Improve performance ultimately bring the measurable changes in the knowledge, skills, attitudes, and or social behavior.
Structural Issues in the Delivery of Training
Following are some key issues require to be addressed if we want to get any optimum results of any training system.
Corporate Commitment Is Lacking Uneven. Most of the companies in the past were not expanding much on the training but fortunately the trend is being changed because of competition in the market, introduction of latest technical equipment. The workers have to learn three kinds of skills, which are as follow.
– The ability to use the new technology
– The ability to maintain it
– The ability to diagnose system problems
- Aggregate expenditures by business on training are insufficient. It should be increases to 2%of their annual pay roll.
- Business Complains Against Education System. The business complains that school award degrees, but the degrees are no guarantee that graduates have mastered skills. 37% workforce are lacking basic skills, this was revealed by the executives in the recent survey, 15% companies providing training in math and 10% providing aid in reading. In Pakistan this figures can be much less as compare to USA.
- Poaching Trained Workers Is Major Problem And Provides A Strong Disincentive For Training. The knowledge is becoming a necessity of the employees as the days passing so more value should be given to this vary aspect.
- Lack of Funding Resulting In Downsizing. The governments is not providing enough funds for retaining to help workers displaced as result of downsizing or of the defuse contraction. So workers must becomes technically sound to safe guard their future.
- Business Requires To Be Supported By The Government. Educated person like graduates be incorporated in the business, the government may extend its help in implementation of this plan.
- Employees And School Must Develop Closer Ties. It can bring the great change of the economy of any country if this factor started being implemented by these two pliers of a nation.
- Organized Labor Can Help. The unions and organizations jointly prepare the training programs.
Assessing Training Needs
There are three level of analysis for determining the needs that training can fulfill.
- Organizational Analysis. it focuses on identifying where the organization training is needed.
- Operational Analysis. It attempts to identify the content of training –what an employee must do in order to perform competently.
- Individual Analysis. It determines how well each employee is performing the tasks that make up his or her job.
Designing of Training Program
Following must be kept in view while designing any training program:
Principles of Learning To promote efficient learning, long time retention, application of the skills and factual knowledge be incorporated in the training program in the shape of drafting, or practical aspect of some particular nature of job like insurance etc.
Motivating the Trainee and Goal Setting The objective coupe with the goal setting is made absolutely clear to the trainee.
Behavior Modeling A model is someone who is seen as competent, powerful and friendly and has status within organization. So the similar qualities are found in a model before going to show to trainee.
Meaningfulness of Material It is easier to learn and remember factual material when it is simple and meaning full so one should prepare simple and material to the trainee, and should not be made complicated programs.
One-way to keep in mind the phases of training is to portray them graphically in the form of a model that illustrates the interaction among the phases.
Practice Anybody learning new things must be given practice because practice takes the individual toward perfection. Practice ha three aspects, which are as under
- Active Practice During the early stages instructor must look after the training directly.
- Over learning The trainee should be given that much practices that it should become the second nature of the trainee.
- Length of the P practice session The length of the training should be such that trainee should not be started feeling bored ness.
- Feedback It’s the main feature of ay training program, the feed back of the trainee be obtained during, after and join the designated job. Simply it means the evaluation during and after the training. Evaluation must provide a continuous stream of feedback that can be used to reassess training needs thereby creating input for the next stage of employee development
Evaluating Training Program
The assessment phase serves as foundation for the entire training effort. Both the training and development phase and the evaluations phase depend on inputs from assessment. The purpose of the assessment phase is o define what it is the employee should learn in relation to desired job behavior. If this phase is not carefully done the training program, as a whole will have little chance of achieving what is intended to do.
Assuming that managers specify the objectives of the training program carefully the next task is to design the environment in which to achieve those objectives. This is the purpose of the training phase. Choose methods and techniques carefully and deliver them systematically in a supportive, encouraging environment based on sound principles of learning.
Finally, if both the assessment phase and the training and development phase have been done competently evaluation should present few problems. Evaluation is twofold process that involves
- Establishing indicators of success in training as well as on the job.
- Determining exactly what job related changes have occurred as a result of the training,
- Have trainees achieved a specific level of skill, knowledge, or performance?
- Did change occur?
- Is the change positively related to the achievement of the goals?
- Will similar change occur with the new participants in the same training program?