Force Theory of State
According to Force theory of government also known as force theory of state, the state was born as a result of force i.e. aggression, war, conquest and subjugation. In ancient times a strong man with the help of his supporters dominated the weaker people of his tribe and established the political relation of command and obedience. This was the beginning of the state. Later on a strong tribe dominated the weaker ones and in this way a kingdom came into being. With the passage of time a strong king subjugated the weaker ones and created an empire.
A Writer says that human history is nothing but a record of fighting and wars. Some people say that people have to start wars because population increased and people were forced to capture the means for the basic necessities. This required better tactics and improve art of war. In this way the strong and better trained people dominated the weaker and less trained people. In order to support this argument the example of England is given.
In ancient times English fought with one another. The result was that they were divided into seven kingdoms called heptarchy, Later on one king becomes so powerful that he conquered the rest and the kingdom of England was borne. Later on the kingdom of England dominated several other kingdoms of the world and became the British Empire. This goes to prove that the state born as a result of force. The matter does not end there. Even after establishment of the state, force is still required to maintain the state. Within the state force is required to maintain law and order and punish those who violate laws. Similarly in order to defend the orders of the state force was needed.
Force Theory of Government Limitations & Weaknesses
Following are the weaknesses of force theory of government
1. Priority given to Force
Force theory of state gives more importance to the role of force. No doubt force was and is important but it is not the only element, which has created the state, and preserves it. Today the supporters of this theory forget that force is like a medicine and not a food. There is French saying that “You can do anything with the Bayonet except sit on it.” History has proved that those who come to power by force are also overthrown by force. So force must be used but not regularly.
2. Force is the Basis of State or Government
The supports of the force theory of government forget one basic point that “It is not force but will which is the basis of the state.” Force must be used but with the consent of the people. Any state that fails to learn this lesson of history becomes non-existent.