There are three main sources of social change i.e.
- Cultural base
- Change in population structure and
- The extraordinary gifted persons
By cultural base we mean the number of cultural traits existing at a given time and place. For example if there were one thousand cultural traits in Pakistani culture in 1948, then this was the cultural base of Pakistani Society in 1948. If in 1979 the number of such traits goes to four thousand, we can say that cultural base has been enlarged. The following points should be kept in mind in respect of cultural base.
- If the cultural base of a Society is larger than there will be greater changes of social changes, as innovations (combination of two or more existing cultural traits in a new or slightly new form) and diffusion (a process whereby a cultural traits or pattern is spread from one individual, group or society to another) will flourish more in comparison to the small cultural base.
- If the values of the society are undergoing a change then it is always easier to introduce social changes as the people mostly do not believe so firmly in the old value system and they are ready to make experiments in new fields of group life.
- If in the Society the number of frustrated and desists fled individuals becomes greater, it would enhance the speed of social change in the Society.
- If the culture is heterogeneous it will bear brighten chances of social change as compared to a homogeneous culture with less number of subcultures in it.
- Technology (the sum of ideas, skills and applied knowledge) is the major course of social change. Advancement and progress in technology stimulates changes in other forms of interaction.
Changes in Population Structure
The changes in the structural aspect of population are very important and significant in bringing social change in a Society at a given time. The growth of population usually requires more resources regarding food, shelter and clothing etc. It becomes difficult to adjust the rising numbers to the country’s existing sources. This unhappy situation will demand new ways and means to solve the problems. Further a rapid growth and its uneven distribution in the country will encourage inland migration and changes in the quality of population. This, under normal conditions, may lead to new roles, statuses, division of labour, changes in social relationships and change in behaviour of people in order to meet the new needs and requirements of their daily lives. In the same way, if the ratio of young people in a given population is greater, it will be having greater chances for the introduction of social changes in the society because the young people are more responsive to novelties.
Naturally Gifted Individuals
At many occasions the persons, who are naturally gifted like Prophets, reformers, intellectuals, poets, scientists etc. give new ways of thinking and behaving to the individuals in a society. Thus mostly the role of a single man is important in bringing, social change which may be in economic political or in any other field. This is also an importance source of social change.