Following are the different aspects of the study of population.
Basically demography is the study of population and population is studied in the form of its size. Demography studied that how the size of the population is in en area? In India population census are undertaken after every ten years. The demographers of different countries trying to find out the size of the population of their countries. These data of the countries are further utilized by the United Nations to find out the world population. The population division of United Nations situated at New York studies the world population. Some important data is also provided by the food and agricultural organization (FAO).
Fertility is also an important aspect of social demography. It includes the birth rate, family size, sterility and contraception etc. The demography studied the reproductive span and biological aspects are very important for fertility rates. The psychological factors affecting fertility are the Adolescent sterility, contraception’s and interval b/w successive births, social and cultural factors affecting fertility include, abortions, Fetal Mortality, intercourse absence, use of contraceptives, sterilization and Norms about family size etc. the basic measures of fertility during one years is the measurement of crude Birth Rate, general Fertility Rate, Age specific Fertility Rate and Total Fertility Rate etc. Demography studies levels and trends of fertility on international level. It is interested in the factors responsible for the birth decline in the developed countries also factors related to high fertility in the developing countries.
Population is distributed according to the geographical areas. It studies the measurement of population as well as the density in percentage. It is also studies the factors, influencing the population like social, political, economics and geographical population is distributed in the form of rural and urban residence. It studies the growth in the population of an area and the urbanization. Population distribution is studied in rural-urban population ration, size and locality of residence, percentage of population in rural or urban areas etc. it also studies the factors affecting rural-urban population distribution.
Migration is the aspect or field of study for demography which is classified into, immigration, emigration, in-migration and out-migration. The demographers study the general trend of migration and migratory movements. It also studies migration interval, gross and net migration include census surveys and population registers. The methods of measuring internal migration can be direct as well as indirect. The direct measures include data concerning place of birth, duration of residence, place of last residence etc. the indirect migration include data about vital statistics, survival ratio and migration. So, demography studies migration in case of age, sex, educational attainment as well as inter-nation migration.
Organization of Population
In a particular period of time all the characteristics, elements and compositions of an area is organized by the demographers. It studies the measurable characteristics like, age, sex, martial status, education, relation, caste, race and health these characteristics are changing from time to time and place to place which is study of demography.
Mortality is also an important field of demography. Mortality is the death rate of a population during one year. It is measured by the crude death rate, infant mortality rate and total mortality rate. Demography studies thee mortality patterns of sex and age, causes of death, levels and trends of mortality in a country and in the world etc. it also studies the motility differentials in rural and urban.
It is an important field of demography. The economic study of both the employed and unemployed is made by the demographers. It also study the population which is not active economically like home makers, students and also study the status of labor, labor force, child labor, industrial workers and female data concerning labor force. The sources of data for economically active population are population census and special sample surveys. The basic measures of labor force include crude labor force include crude labor force participation rate. The age-sex specific labor force participation rates. The labor force participation is studied both in males and females. It studies the national and international studies regarding employment, unemployment, underemployment and rural unemployment.
Institutional demography includes the study of demographical aspects of social institutions particularly family and marriage. It also studies the political as well as religious and educational institutions. The study of marriage includes marital status, age and marriage by status, marriage age by religious groups and marriage age by caste. It also studies the effects of marriage by the increase or decrease of population.
The development of a country depends upon population policy. Population growth and socio-economic development are intimately related to one another. The study of population policy includes organizational structure, guiding principles, education and motivation, family planning targets, family planning progress; and effects of birth rate. Population policies are different and developed in different countries according to their local requirements. Various suggestions had been given by world organizations and government in the aspect of population policy making.
From the above discussion of the aspects or field of social demography we have concluded that population studies covers some specific areas of population like, size, composition, fertility, mortality, migration, urbanization and population policy. Its scope is increasing day by day and new areas for research are forwarded to the population studies. Thus the scope of demography is becoming wide.